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medial group#Gracilis, pectineus, adductor, external obturator (the adductors) and sartorius. Principally adduct the hindlimb. Most are supplied by the obturator nerve.
tensor fasciae latae#from ventral spine of ilium (coxal tuber) to lateral femoral fascia. Supplied by the cranial gluteal n. Flexor of the hip.
#aponeurotic origin from the symphysial region, aponeurotic insertion through crural fascia to tibial crest and medial stifle
pectineus#prominent surface feature, from pubic margin and the prepubic tendon to medial femur.
adductor#from ventral aspect of the pelvic floor to distal medial femur and medial stifle
obturator externus#from ventral surface of pelvic floor, over and around the obturator foramen to trochanteric fossa, adductor and supinator
#craniomedially, two bellies, from the iliac crest to the medial structures of the stifle region.
Inn. by saphenous branch of the femoral nerve, flexor and adductor of the hip, stifle extensor during stance
femoral canal#
superficial space between caudal border of the sartorius and pectineus
deep muscles of the hip#small and essentially trivial: the obturator internus, gemelli, quadratus femoris, and articularis coxae. Most are supplied by the sciatic nerve.
obturator internus#from dorsal surface of pelvic floor near obturator foramen, tendon leaves the pelvis by passing over the ischium (dog&horse) caudal to the acetabulum to trochanteric fossa, supinator
gemelli#two small bundles from the ischial spine to the trochanteric fossa, supinators
quadratus femoris#from the ventral aspect of the ischium to femoral shaft close to the trochanteric fossa, extensor but can be of no significance
articularis coxae#lies on the capsule over the cranial hip joint and protects this from being nipped between the femoral and acetabular surfaces
muscles of the caudal (hamstring) group#biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. Extend from the ischial tuber and sacrotuberous ligament to insertion proximal and distal to stifle, some continue to calcaneus within common calcanean tendon. Vertebral heads inn. by caudal gluteal, pelvic by sciatic n. or its tibial division. Main role — forceful extention of the hip joint. Muscle action on stifle: cranial division -insert prox. to joint axis- extend stifle when foot is planted, caudal division — insert distal to joint axis — extend when fixed but flexes when foot is free. Parts of biceps & semitendinosus that insert on calcaneus can extend the hock
biceps femoris
#two insertions by way of the femoral and crural fascia to the patella and ligaments proximal and distal to the joint and additional insertion to the point of the hock
insertions to medial proximal tibia and to calcaneus. The insertions of the biceps and semitendinosus, one to each side of the popliteal fossa (depression behind the stifle), can be palpated in life
most medial, insertion is divided between a cranial part to the medial femoral condyle and a caudal part to the medial tibial condyle
abductor cruris caudalis
#on the deep face of the biceps,
from sacrotuberos lig. to crural fascia next to insertion of biceps, abductor of the limb, flexor of stifle
extensor group of the stifle#quadriceps femoris
flexor group#popliteus
quadriceps femoris#
cranial to the femur, consists of four parts separate at their origins. Rectus femoris arises from the shaft of the ilium cranial to the acetabulum. Vastus medialis, intermedius, and lateralis, arise from the medial, cranial, and lateral aspects of the femoral shaft. The common insertion on tibial tuberosity through the patellar ligament(s). Extensors of the stifle, rectus femoris is also potential flexor of the hip. Inn. by the femoral nerve.
from lateral condyle of the femur fans out to a broad fleshy insertion on the proximal caudal tibia,
tendon contains a sesamoid, flexor of the stifle, pronator, inn. by the tibial nerve.
gluteal group#superficial, middle, and deep gluteal muscles and the tensor fasciae latae
gluteus medius#from the outer ilium and the gluteal fascia to greater trochanter, powerful extensor of the hip with some abduction potential, inn. by cranial gluteal nerve.
gluteus superficialis#
covers the caudal part of the gluteus medius, extending from the gluteal and caudal fascia (sacrum&caudal vertebrae) to the third trochanter of the femur, extensor of the hip, supplied by the caudal gluteal n.
gluteus profundus#covered by the gluteus medius, from the ischial spine to cranial part of the greater trochanter, abductor and potential extensor, inn. by the cranial gluteal nerve
tibialis cranialis
#lies immediately cranial to the subcutaneous medial surface of the tibia, from the lateral condyle of the tibia to mediodistal tarsus and adjacent metatarsus, flexor and supinator of the hock
dog and cat lack (pure flexors)#peroneus tertius
peroneus longus
#from lateral tibial condyle and lateral collateral ligament of the stifle, crosses the lateral aspect of the tarsus before turning medially, over the plantar aspect, to end on the proximal medial metatarsal bone, pronator of the foot, may also flex the hock
long digital extensor
#from lateral condyle of the femur, along the lateral border of the tibialis cranialis, tendon is held down by retinacula where it crosses the dorsal surface of the hock, splits into branches, inserts on extensor process of a distal phalanx of each functional digit. In the dog tendon has small sesamoids, flexes carpus extends digits, peronial n.
lateral digital extensor#from the head of the fibula, crosses the lateral aspect of the hock, and enters the most lateral functional digit, where it terminates either on the proximal phalanx (dog) or by joining the long extensor tendon (horse)
extensor hallucis longus# from cranial border of the fibula to the proximal part of the medial digit
caudal mm of the leg#gastrocnemius, the soleus, and the superficial and deep digital flexors. All are supplied by the tibial nerve.
triceps surae#gastrocnemius and soleus (absent in the dog)
gastrocnemius#lateral and medial head from lateral and medial supracondylar tuberosity to the point of the hock, has sesamoids at the origin, extensor of the hock, potential flexor of the stifle
(oppose bending of the tibia)
superficial digital flexor
#from supracondylar tubercle close to origin of gastracnemius, runs between its two parts, to the point of the hock, continuing over the plantar aspect of the calcaneus to proximal interphalangeal joint of each functional digit, infiltrated by connective tissue.
deep digital flexor muscles#lateral and medial flexors and the tibialis caudalis on the caudal surface of the tibia (and fibula), from which they take origin, lateral and medial muscles unite, tibialis caudalis remains aloof and inserts separately on the hock which makes it extensor of the hock and supinator of the foot.
short digital muscles#interossei
craniolateral mm of the leg#pure flexiors of the hock and flexors of the hock and extensors of the digits, innervation by peroneal nerve
full set of pure flexors of the hock (craniolateral group)#not found in any domestic species; it would comprise the tibialis cranialis, peroneus tertius, peroneus longus, and peroneus brevis
extensor muscles of the digits (craniolateral group)#long digital extensor, lateral digital extensor, extensor hallucis longus
principal component of the common calcanean (Achilles) tendon#gasrtocnemius
hallux#большой палец ноги
in fractures of the femur#the lower fragment is commonly displaced caudally by the pull of the gastrocnemius